Baikonur Cosmodrome is located in the
Creating a spaceport in the 1950s it was determined the need for mining of the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile
As a result, chose to accommodate the new test site in Kazakhstan, near the Aral Sea near the railway station
Baikonur covers an area of 6,717 km2 and a length from north to south — 75 km. From west to east — 90 km.
The range of azimuths launch vehicles ranges from 35 to 92.
The main construction projects have been launching pads of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and technical facilities site. By November 1956 have been completed construction and installation works on most sites and facilities to ensure readiness for the start of flight tests of ICBMs. Were built: the launch facility, launch control center, integration and test building, part of the measuring stations, buildings, computer center, put in place a water pipeline, water pumping stations and power plants. Built roads and railways.
The first launch of a
The first successful launch of «8K71» № 6 held on 21 August 1957 and 4 October of that year launched from the Baikonur rocket 8K71 «PM» with the first artificial satellite of the Earth
In subsequent years, at the site are launch and technical complexes for the preparation and launch of spacecraft using ELV of the light («Cyclone»), and middle («Union», «Lightning," «Zenith»), heavy («Proton») and
The first launcher Soyuz launch vehicle was put into operation in 1957. Second, similar to her — in 1961. Two rocket launchers
Simultaneously with the creation of
For SC injection used refurbished under the ELV «Rokot» and «Dnepr». The first launch of LV «Rokot» was held in 1994, and «Dnepr» — in 2000.
From the Baikonur Cosmodrome launch satisfied all manned spacecraft and all the launches of spacecraft (SC) into a geostationary orbit (communications, television, space navigation system GLONASS). This launch site is also used for launching spacecraft into low and medium Earth orbit (meteorological system Meteor, studies Earth’s natural resources, etc.), as well as for launching unmanned interplanetary stations and commercial launches of spacecraft.
A significant contribution the Baikonur cosmodrome in space exploration were launches of carrier rockets Proton with interplanetary probes to the «Luna», «Venera», «Mars» and
Baikonur Cosmodrome is used to implement the following space programs and projects: «Vostok», «Voskhod," «Salute», «Mir," «Mars» «Venera," «Luna» and
The greatest role Cosmodrome played in implementing the project «Mir». In the «Mir» was attended by about 220 organizations and 80 scientific research institutions. On the «Mir» station was visited by 104 people, of which — 62 foreigners, in the field of medicine, biology, engineering and astrophysics, has conducted more than 31,000 experiments conducted: 64 docking with the cargo spacecraft «Progress», 31 — «Soyuz» and as part of NASA’s «Mir» dockings 9' with the American «Shuttle». The station was delivered 170 tons of various cargoes and was retuned to Earth more than 4700 kg with experimental results.
According to the program «
Since the early 1990s work on the program
Contribution to the Baikonur cosmodrome in the implementation of national space programs estimated the number of satellites launched by each program. Thus, program monitoring from space and remote sensing held launches about 95% of the spacecraft under the program coordinate and time support — more than 70% of the spacecraft, program communications and television — 25% of the spacecraft under the program of meteorological service — more than 40% SC, program of research — more than 30% of the spacecraft on manned program — 100% SC.
Baikonur Cosmodrome is used in international programs, in which Russia participates. Plans for cooperation with the international community to create and use the InteELVational Space Station designed specifically to Baikonur cosmodrome.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union Cosmodrome became the property of the Republic of Kazakhstan and was leased by the Russian Federation. In 1990, the landfill «Baikonur» has been renamed Baikonur Cosmodrome. Simultaneously with the development of the landfill expanded and founded in May 1955, a residential complex, which over the years has changed several names, and in 1995 was renamed the city of Baikonur. Infrastructure of the city of Baikonur includes more than 300 homes, 6 urban hotels, hospital, city hospital, etc. The city has a number of educational institutions: more than 10 schools, a branch of MAI, a technical communications, medical school and other social objects.
As is known, in order to study and use of space in the period from 1957 to the present time the world was conducted over 4000 launch vehicles (LV). Of these, more than 2500 launches conducted from the Baikonur in Russia. However, traffic in the first place is the Baikonur Cosmodrome. With this launch site annually flown about 80% of the payload of its total number that appears with all the launch sites in Russia. Since 1995, the number of Rocket leading position among Russian space centers began to assume the Baikonur Cosmodrome. During this period, with its launch complexes was carried out over 60% of RCN launches of the total amount spent by Russia.
Currently, the vast majority of leased Baikonur cosmodrome passed into the possession of the Federal Space Agency (2 starter set ELV «Soyuz», ELV «Zenith», ELV
In 2004, the Presidents of Kazakhstan,
Currently Kazkosmos with Roskosmos work on coordination of joint decisions on the establishment of the SLC Baiterek based sites 250, 250A (UKSS) the Baikonur cosmodrome. This would include the issue of withdrawal from the leased facilities of the Russian Federation the Baikonur cosmodrome (UKSS) these areas in accordance with the lease the Baikonur complex between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation of December 10, 1994. In general, as the activation of Kazakhstan’s space activities within the national space program is expanding and the interaction of the two friendly countries in the use of the Baikonur cosmodrome in the mutual interests.